Look to the night sky in Singapore, and you won’t see many stars. The light pollution from artificial lights burning 24/7 across the modern city invades the dark of night.

Singapore’s progress in the last fifty years has been widely documented. An unrivaled productivity central to the ethos of the small island nation has turned it into one of Asia’s key financial hubs.

It is a city that never sleeps, evident by the sea of lights seen out of an airplane window. Office buildings stay illuminated well into the wee hours of the night and public areas and walkways are lit for the safety of pedestrians. About 110,000 street lamps line its alleys, roads, and expressways.

Unsurprisingly, some of the biggest sources of light pollution are Singapore’s container terminals, the airport, and the Marina Bay financial district – the centers of trade, transport, and finance.

Although fundamental to urban infrastructure, light pollution has detrimental effects on humans and the environment. Artificial lighting is known to affect the natural circadian rhythm of both humans and wildlife.

Worldwide, artificial lights and associated light pollution have wide impacts on birds, which often collide with brightly-lit buildings.

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